One night mother Trishla is sleeping in her
soft and cozy bed. Suddenly she dreams of
auspicious things and gets up. She is filled
with an hitherto inexperienced joy and ecstasy.
She had fourteen wonderful dreams. Her dreams
filled her with wonder. She never had such
dreams before. She narrated her dreams to
King Siddharth. The king called the soothsayers
for the interpretation of dreams and they
unanimously said, "Sir, her Highness
will be blessed with a noble son. The dream
augur the vast spiritual realm, the child
shall command. Her Highness will become the
Nine months and fourteen days passed by. It
was spring time and the nature was in full
bloom. The atmosphere was clean and pure.
Cool and fragrant breeze infused joy in every
particle in the nature. In the soundless quietude
of the midnight, the sky was fluorescent with
milky moonlight. The auspicious date was the
thirteenth of the bright half of the month
of Chaitra. The moon was in conjunction with
the Uttaraphalguni Nakshatra (lunar mansion),
the sign of victory. At that auspicious moment
Mother Trishla gave birth to a divine child.
Immediately after the birth of prince Vardhaman,
Indra, the King of Heaven, arrived with other
gods and goddesses. He hypnotized the whole
city including mother Trishala and King Siddharth.
He took baby Vardhaman to Mount Meru and bathed
him. He proclaimed peace and harmony by reciting
Bruhat Shanti during the first bathing ceremony
of the new born Tirthankara. At dawn a maid
named Priyamvada rushed to king Siddharth
and announced, "Congratulations Sire!
Many congratulations! Queen Trishla has given
birth to a male child." Filled with joy
and ecstasy the king gave away all the ornaments
on his body, save state emblems, to Priyamvada.
He also released her from slavery. Thus, a
slave woman was freed of her life long slavery
just because she was the bearer of the good
news of the birth of the Tirthankar.
King Siddharth called his prime minister and
ordered, "Tell the officer-in-charge
of celebrations to organize unique and special
birth celebrations." After the kings
order, all the highways, roads, and lanes
in the town of Kshatriyakund were cleared,
perfumed water was sprayed, and buntings,
garlands, and leaves were lavishly put everywhere.
Sweets and gifts were distributed. People
danced with joy. The whole town echoed with
felicitous songs and music. Maharaj Siddharth
had an inspiration. He called the prime minister
and said, "The celebrations of child
birth in the royal family are part of the
tradition. However, on this particular occasion
I want something new, something unique."
The minister humbly submitted, "Sire
! Express your wish and it will be carried
out like an order." King Siddharth said,
"Today announce a general amnesty. Free
all the prisoners; right off all the debts;
distribute money to the needy; allow fifty
per cent subsidy on all purchases from all
traders; open centers for distribution of
food and clothes to the poor, old, and invalid;
and liberate old and sick slaves. Thus let
the townsfolk join the celebrations free from
misery, hunger and bondage. The order of king
Siddharth was carried out. The celebrations
continued for ten days with unprecedented
enthusiasm. People hailed the occasion and
muttered, " Some divine great soul has
descended on the earth to liberate the world
from pain and misery." When the name
giving ceremonies approached, king Siddharth
said to Devi Trishla, "Devi! There has
been a continued increase in our wealth, power
and happiness. As such I think we should name
the child as Vardhaman (ever increasing)."
Queen Trishla consented with joy, "Maharaj
! You are absolutely correct. This child is
certainly going to accelerate our all around
development." On the twelfth day after
the birth of the child, king Siddharth organized
a great feast and invited all his relatives
and friends. After meals and other state courtesies,
king Siddharth addressed the guests, "Since
the day this child was conceived, our family
has been blessed with increasing goodwill,
respect, wealth, and mutual affection. Cash,
gold, and gems have increased in our treasury.
The public has gained health, peace, happiness,
and goodwill. Thus since the moment this soul
has descended, there has been a continued
enhancement in our glory, wealth, health,
and fame. As such I and Devi Trishla have
thought of a befitting name for this child
King Siddharth’s suggestion was unanimously
approved and the child was formally named
Queen Trishala, mother of Lord Mahavir at
midnight saw fourteen (sixteen according to
some) beautiful and auspicious dreams after
conception. They were:
- Goddess Laxmi
- Garland of Flowers
- Full Moon
- Large Flag
- Silver Urn
- Celestial Air-plane
- Heap of Gems
- Smokeless Fire
The first dream Queen Trishala
saw was of an elephant. She saw a big, tall,
and impetuous elephant. It had two pairs
of tusks. The color of the elephant was
white and its whiteness was superior to
the color of marble. It was an auspicious
elephant, and was endowed with all the desirable
marks of excellence. This dream indicates
that her son will guide the spiritual chariot,
and save human beings from misery, greed,
and attraction of life.
The second dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a bull. The color of the bull
was also white, but it was brighter than
white lotuses. It glowed with beauty and
radiated a light all around. It was noble,
grand, and had a majestic hump. It had fine,
bright, and soft hair on his body. Its horns
were superb and sharply-pointed. This dream
indicates that her son will be a spiritual
teacher of great ascetics, kings, and other
The third dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a magnificent lion. Its claws
were beautiful and well-poised. The lion
had a large well-rounded head and extremely
sharp teeth. Its lips were perfect, its
color was red, and its eyes were sharp and
glowing. Its tail was impressively long
and well-shaped. Queen Trishala saw this
lion descending towards her and entering
her mouth. This dream indicates that her
son will be as powerful and strong as a
lion. He will be fearless, almighty, and
capable of ruling over the world.
The fourth dream Queen Trishala
saw was of the Goddess Laxmi, the Goddess
of wealth, prosperity and power. She was
seated at the top of mountain Himalaya.
Her feet had a sheen of golden turtle. She
had a delicate and soft fingers. Her black
hair was tiny, soft, and delicate. She wore
rows of pearls interlaced with emeralds
and a garland of gold. A pair of earring
hung over her shoulders with dazzling beauty.
She held a pair of bright lotuses. This
dream indicates that her son will attain
great wealth, power, prosperity.
Garland of Flowers
The fifth dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a celestial garland of flowers
descending from the sky. It smelled of mixed
fragrances of different flowers. The whole
universe was filled with fragrance. The
flowers were white and woven into the garland.
They bloomed during all different seasons.
A swarm of bees flocked to it and they made
a humming sound around the region. This
dream indicates that the fragrance of her
son's preaching will spread over the entire
The sixth dream queen Trishala
saw was of a full moon. It presented an
auspicious sight. The moon was at its full
glory. It awoke the lilies to bloom fully.
It was bright like a well polished mirror.
The moon radiated whiteness like a swan.
It inspired the oceans to surge skyward.
The beautiful moon looked like a radiant
beauty-mark in the sky. This dream indicates
that her son will have a great physical
structure, and be pleasing to all living
beings of the universe.
The seventh dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a huge disc of sun. The sun was
shining, and destroying darkness. It was
red like the flame of the forest. Lotuses
bloomed at its touch. The sun is the lamp
of the sky and the lord of planets. The
sun rose and an put to end the evil activities
of the creatures who thrive at night. This
dream indicates that the teaching of her
son will destroy anger, greed, ego, lust,
pride, etc. from the life of the people.
The eighth dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a very large flag flying on a
golden stick. The flag fluttered softly
and auspiciously in the gentle breeze. It
attracted the eyes of all. Peacock feathers
decorated its crown. A radiant white lion
was on it. This dream indicates that her
son will be great, noble, and a well respected
leader of the family.
The ninth dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a silver urn (kalash) full of
crystal-clear water. It was a magnificent,
beautiful, and bright pot. It shone like
gold and was a joy to behold. It was garlanded
with strings of lotuses and other flowers.
The pot was holy and untouched by anything
sinful. This dream indicates that her son
will be perfect in all virtues.
The tenth dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a lotus lake (padma-sagar). Thousands
of lotuses were floating on the lake which
opened at the touch of the sun's rays. The
lotuses imparted a sweet fragrance. There
were swarms of fish in the lake. Its water
glowed like flames of fire. The lily-leaves
were floating on the water. This dream indicates
that her son will help to liberate the human
beings who are tangled in the cycle of birth,
death, and misery.
The eleventh dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a milky sea. Its water swelled
out in all directions, rising to great heights
with turbulent motions. Winds blew and created
waves. A great commotion was created in
the sea by huge sea animals. Great rivers
fell into the sea, producing huge whirlpools.
This dream indicates that her son will navigate
through life on an ocean of birth, death,
and misery leading to Moksha or liberation.
The twelfth dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a celestial airplane. The airplane
had eight thousands magnificent gold pillars
studded with gems. The plane was framed
with sheets of gold and garlands of pearls.
It was decorated with rows of murals depicting
bulls, horses, men, crocodiles, birds, children,
deers, elephants, wild animals, and lotus
flowers. The plane resounded with celestial
music. It was saturated with an intoxicating
aroma of incense fumes. It was illuminated
with a bright silvery light. This dream
indicates that all Gods and Goddesses in
heaven will respect and salute to his spiritual
teaching and will obey him.
Heap of Gems
The thirteenth dream Queen Trishala
saw was of a great heap of gems, as high
as Mount Meru. There were gems and precious
stones of all types and kinds. These gems
were heaped over the earth and they illuminated
the entire sky. This dream indicates that
her son will have infinite virtues and wisdom.
The fourteenth dream queen Trishala
saw was of a smokeless fire. The fire burned
with great intensity and emitted a radiant
glow. Great quantities of pure ghee and
honey were being poured on the fire. It
burned with numerous flames. This dream
indicates that the wisdom of her son will
excel the wisdom of all other great people.
Life and Youth of Lord Mahavira
Lord Mahavira was born 2600 years ago. His
father was king Siddhartha the ruler of
Videh, and queen Trishla was his mother.
Queen Trishla gave birth to Lord Mahavir
in March/April on Mahavir Jayanti day in
599BC. They named him Vardhaman which means
‘one who brings prosperity’.
Legend has it that 56 maidens from Indralok
performed holy rituals and danced to celebrate
this auspicious occasion. Attending this
ceremony, along with the other gods, was
Indra who carried Vardhaman to Mount Meru,
where everyone sang the infant’s glory.
Since the day he was conceived, new dimensions
were added to the prosperity of Videh. State
coffers overflowing with money, silver,
gold and gems. So, when he was born, he
was given the name 'Vardhman.' Mahavira
is known by a number of names, which are
Vardhman, Shramana, Mahavira, Sanmati, Vira,
Ativira and Ghathaputra . He has been mentioned
as Nathaputra in Buddhist scriptures.
There are many stories of Mahavir’s
boyhood. They illustrate that from early
childhood, Mahavir believed in practicing
non-violence. He did not use force to control
even wild and dangerous animals. He knew
that all living beings understand the language
of love. Once young Mahavir was playing
with friends when a snake appeared. His
friends were scared and they ran away. On
another occasion, Mahavir was not scared
of an angry elephant. The elephant eventually
became calm and docile.
At seven when Vardhaman was playing with
friends an evil demi-god took the form of
a cobra and tried to frighten the kids.
Brave Vardhaman boldly grabbed the snake
and flung it far away. On another occasion,
the demi-god joined the children in the
disguise of a child. According to the rules
of the game, Vardhaman had a chance to ride
on the child’s back. As Vardhaman
climbed onto his back the child transferred
himself into a demon. Vardhaman controlled
him with his mighty fists. The demon appeared
in his true form and praised Vardhaman for
his bravery and called him ‘Mahavir’
meaning very brave.
Seeing the prince in the prime of his youth,
king Siddhartha initiated moves for the
marriage of his son. But Mahavira was indifferent
to all things mundane right from his childhood.
So he did not agree to the proposal to get
married with Yashodaya the daughter of king
Jitshatru. The royal parents put heavy pressure
on Mahavira to accept the proposal. He had
great regards for his parents and did not
want to hurt their feelings, so reluctantly
he accepted it, and also resolved that as
long as his parents lived, he would not
renounce the family, although he was strongly
inspired to renounce wordly things.
Once, Mahavira was in deep meditation. He
unfolded the depth of the inner consciousness
and transcended into the astral realms.
He re-capitulated the memories of his past
lives' existence; certain events of his
past impinged themselves upon his consciousness.
He saw by his intuition that his parents,
the followers of Lord Parshawa had decided
to self-embrace yogic death. Thanks to the
very high affection exuded towards him by
his parents, as also his own reciprocation
for twenty-eight years, their demise gave
rise to much anguish in the affectionate
heart of Mahavira.
Following the demise, when his uncle Suparshwa
and elder brother Nandiwardhan learnt about
his views to renounce the household, they
tried to change his mind, but in vain. However,
experiencing the compassion of his uncle
and elder brother he agreed to stay for
two years with a pre-condition that he be
allowed to follow his own spiritual course.
During these two years, he practised non-violence,
truth and celibacy. He practised meditation,
contemplation, non-attachment, that opened
up the virtues of self-realisation.
Life As An Ascetic
Mahavira left his hom in search of emancipation.
He renounced for the rest of his physical
life, all acts that happen to be sinful.
For about twelve-and-a-half years he had
undergone severe penance and attained Kevalyagyan
, the total enlightenment. He suffered a
great deal of physical pain and torture
from various sources. Among them, the most
severe was the biting by the highly poisonous
snake Chandkaushik. Mahavir remained calm
and peaceful in the midst of these torturous
events. He never lost his serenity and never
developed hatred for anyone.
During this period he mostly observed silence;
fasted and maintained a state of total awareness
for twenty-four hours a day. He did not
sleep for more than 50 minutes in total
in his twelve years of Sadhana . He conquered
sleep by meditation. He usually did meditation
in a standing posture. He had full control
over his tongue and conquered taste.
Meditation and fasting , were the two main
aspects of his sadhana . The general perception
of Mahavira is that of an ascetic than that
of a great meditator. The reason for his
long fasting was that he wanted to establish
that the power of soul is unlimited in comparison
to mind, mind to subtle body, and subtle
body to the gross body. He had proved that
this body can survive without food and water
once the connection with the soul is established.
He was so absorbed in meditation that hunger
and thirst sensations were weakened within
him. During this period of penance, most
of the time he was either in meditation
or kayotsarga (deep relaxation) having experiences
of body and soul as being different. In
this way, two phases of Mahavira's life
- the householder's and of an ascetic's
ended at the age of forty-two years.
The Lord sat in Godohika posture. He was
fasting for two days. He experienced renewed
vigour. It seemed the veil over existence
was going to be torn in no time. He was
exposing himself to the warmth of the sun.
He experienced the profound meditative state
described as Sukla Dhyana . Ultimately,
he stood face to face with reality without
the veil. The sun of enlightenment rose
to stay forever. Lord was now the enlightened,
the omniscient and clairvoyant. He had full
knowledge of everything, and its modes near
and far were automatically projected in
He had performed severe meditation having
destroyed the four Ghatya Karma (Darshanavarnia,
Gyanavarnia, Mohniya and Antrya ), and reached
the highest state of consciousness, wisdom
and intuition. Having attained Kevalya ,
which is infinite, supreme, complete and
full of wisdom, he became Jina or a conqueror
of Karma, the eight great enemies of the
At the age of forty-two he attained omniscience,
Kevalgyan. He became Jina, the twenty-fourth
Tirthankar of the present era. As omniscient
he knew everything of the past, present
and future. As the last Tirthankar, he revived
the religious order, or Jain Sangh, of monks,
nuns, shravaks and shravikas. His first
disciple, called Gandhars, was Gautamswami,
a well-known Brahmin scholar in that time.
Lord Mahavir had eleven Gandhars, who compiled
twelve scriptures based on what Lord Mahavir
had taught. These scriptures are called
Agams. They were passed verbally from preceptor
to pupil for a long time. They were put
into writing about 890 years after Mahavir.
On the first day of his preaching, 1500
Brahmin scholars and their disciples were
initiated. After the initiation of Chandanbala,
the doors of ladies' initiation were opened.
There were thousands of men and women followers
from the householder circle. In this way
he had four classes - the monk, the nun,
the laymen and the laywomen - all formed
into Tirtha ( Sangha ). In this way he became
Tirthankar . He brought into Sangha rules
of self-discipline rules and management.
He divided the work among seven categories
of his disciples.
He travelled and preached for thirty years.
He had been equipped with the power to comprehend
all objects. He could know all conditions
of the world and the thoughts of men. He had
reached the highest knowledge and intuition.
Before commencing his travels, Gautam Indrabhuti
and his ten great scholars along with hundreds
of students were initiated by Lord Mahavira
by reading their mind. Their doubts, which
had never been touched upon by any other person,
were cleared. In devotion and satisfaction,
they surrendered to him and become his disciples.
During his sermons, Lord Mahavira preached
the doctrine of Jainism and Nirvana to people
following different creeds and religions.
He asked them to shed their wrong beliefs
and follow the true path of bliss and Nirvana
. He travelled in the northern states of India.
Many kings become his disciples.
The 7 categories of disciples were made responsible
for education, spiritual courses, service,
propagation of religion, movement of the saints
and other necessities of the Sangha. As the
Sangha progressed and developed, different
progressive directions were brought in. The
Lord decentralised monasticism by dividing
it into categories. Indrabhuti and others
ganadhars were the heads of these groups.
The first seven Ganas (groups) were led by
one leader each. At the time of his Nirvana
there were fourteen thousand monks and thirty-six
thousand nuns under his order.
In the end, at the age of seventy-two, on
the Dipawali day, the last Tirthankar of this
epoch Bhagwan Mahaveer, abandoned this physical
frame and attained Nirwan (complete liberation).
The same day, his chief disciple Indrabhuti
Gautam achieved omniscience. According to
Jain tradition, the great festival of Deepawali
is celebrated in honour of the liberation
of Bhagwan Mahaveer and attainment of complete
sentience by his chief disciple Gautam.
Facts on Lord Mahavira
Name: Bhagwan Mahaveer Swami
Father: Shri Siddharth
Mother: Matha Trishala
Family Name: Ikshvaku
Source of Descent: Pranat
Date of Descent: Ashadh Vad
Place of Birth: Kshatriyakund
Date of Birth: Chaitra Sud
Place of Enlightenment: Rijubaluka
Date of Diksha: Mangsar Sud
Date of Enlightenment: Vaishakh
Place of Nirvana: Pavapuri
Date of Nirvana: Kartik
Period of Practices: 1/2
Age: 72 Years
Chief Disciple: Indrabhuti
Number of Disciples: 11
Number of Ascetics: 14 Thousand
Head of Female Ascetics:
Number of Female Ascetics:
Male Laity: 1.59 Lac
Female Laity: 3.18 Lac
Body Colour: Golden
God of Organisation: Brahmashanti
Goddess of Organisation:
Five Great Vows: (Maha-vratas)
Right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct
are the three most essentials for attaining
In order to acquire these, one must observe
the five great vows:
Non-violence - Ahimsa
Truth - Satya
Non-stealing - Achaurya or
Celibacy/Chastity - Brahmacharya
Non-violence (Ahimsa): Among
these five vows, non-violence (Ahimsa) is
the cardinal principle of Jainism and hence
it is called the highest religious principle,
or the cornerstone of Jainism.
Non-violence is the supreme religion (Ahimsa
It is repeatedly said by all Tirthankaras
in Jain literature: "Do not injure, abuse,
oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture,
or kill any creature or living being."
According to Jainism all living beings, irrespective
of their size, shape, or different spiritual
developments are equal. No living being has
a right to harm, injure, or kill any other
living being, including animals, insects,
and plants. Every living being has a right
to exist and it is necessary to live with
every other living being in perfect harmony
and peace. Nonviolence is based on love and
kindness for all living beings. Nonviolence
in Jainism is not a negative virtue. It is
based upon the positive quality of universal
love and compassion. One who is actuated by
this ideal cannot be indifferent to the suffering
Violence of every type should be completely
forbidden. Mental tortures by way of harsh
words, actions, and any type of bodily injuries
should also be avoided. Even thinking evil
of some one is considered violence in Jainism.
Practically, it is impossible to survive without
killing or injuring some of the smallest living
beings. Some lives are killed even when we
breathe, drink water, or eat food. Therefore,
Jainism says that minimum killing of the lowest
form of life should be our ideal for survival.
In the universe, there are different forms
of life, such as, human beings, animals, insects,
plants, bacteria, and even smaller lives which
cannot be seen even through the most powerful
Jainism has classified all the living beings
according to their senses as follows:
five senses - human, animals,
birds, heavenly, hellish beings
four senses - flies, bees,
three senses - ants, lice,
two senses - worms, leaches,
one sense - vegetables, water,
air, earth, fire etc.
The five sense are, touch, taste, smell, sight,
It is more painful if a life of the higher
forms (more than one sense) are killed. All
non-vegetarian food is made by killing a living
being with two or more senses. Therefore,
Jainism preaches strict vegetarianism, and
prohibits non-vegetarian foods.
Jainism explains that violence is not defined
by actual harm, for this may be unintentional.
It is the intention to harm, the absence of
compassion, and the ignorance that makes an
action violent. Without violent thought there
can be no violent actions. Non-violence is
to be observed in action, speech, and thought.
One should not be violent, ask others to do
so, or approve of such an activity.
Anger, greed, fear, jokes, etc. are the breeding
grounds of untruth. To speak the truth requires
moral courage. Only those who have conquered
greed, fear, anger, jealousy, ego, frivolity,
etc., can speak the truth. Jainism insists
that one should not only refrain from falsehood,
but should always speak the truth which should
be wholesome and pleasant. One should remain
silent if the truth causes pain, hurt, anger,
or death of any living being. Truth is to
be observed in speech, mind, and deed. One
should not utter an untruth, ask others to
do so, or approve of such activities.
(Achaurya or Asteya)
Stealing consists of taking another's property
without his consent, or by unjust or immoral
methods. Further, one should not take anything
which does not belong to him. It does not
entitle one to take away a thing which may
be lying unattended or unclaimed. One should
observe this vow very strictly, and should
not touch even a worthless thing which does
not belong to him. When accepting alms, help,
or aid one should not take more then what
is minimum needed. To take more than one's
need is also considered theft in Jainism.
The vow of non-stealing insists that one should
be totally honest in action, thought, and
speech. One should not steal, ask others to
do so, or approve of such activities.
/ Chastity (Brahmacharya)
Total abstinence from sensual pleasure is
called celibacy. Sensual pleasure is an infatuating
force which sets aside all virtues and reason
at the time of indulgence. This vow of controlling
sensuality is very difficult to observe in
its subtle form. One may refrain from physical
indulgence but may still think of the pleasures
of sensualism, which is prohibited in Jainism.
Monks are required to observe this vow strictly
and completely. They should not enjoy sensual
pleasures, ask others to do the same, nor
approve of it. There are several rules laid
down for observing this vow for householders.
/ Non-possession (Aparigraha)
Jainism believes that the more worldly
wealth a person possesses, the more he is
likely to commit sin to acquire the possession,
and in a long run he may be more unhappy.
The worldly wealth creates attachments which
will continuously result in greed, jealousy,
selfishness, ego, hatred, violence, etc. Lord
Mahavir has said that wants and desires have
no end, and only the sky is the limit for
The Lord directed monks to lead a life of
non-possession (renunciation). Non-possession
or non-acquisition relates with the mind.
Possession is of two kinds: one for things,
and the other is attachment. So the attachment
with things is the external acquisition, and
the internal acquisition is attachment.
He classified the persons in 'possession'
into four groups.
Attachments to worldly objects results in
the bondage to the cycle of birth and death.
Therefore, one who desires of spiritual liberation
should withdraw from all attachments to pleasing
objects of all the five senses.
- One who has nothing in possession but
has attachment for them, is a possession
- One who has got to carry on with his
life and has many possessions but no attachment
for them, is a person of self-restrain.
- One who has neither attachment nor any
possession, is a non-acquisitive person.
- A man has got attachment as well as
possession is acquisitive.
Monks observe this vow by giving up attachments
to all things such as:
Material things: Wealth,
property, grains, house, books, clothes, etc.
Relationships: Father, mother,
spouse, sons, daughters, friends, enemies,
other monks, disciples, etc.
Feelings: Pleasure and painful feelings towards
touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing objects.
They have the equanimity towards music and
noise, good and bad smells, soft and hard
objects for touch, beautiful and dirty sights,
They do not eat food for taste but for survival
with the intention to destroy his karma with
the help of this body. Non-possession and
non-attachment are to be observed in speech,
mind, and deed. One should not possess, ask
others to do so, or approve of such activities.
Jainism has laid down and described in much
detail these five great vows for the path
of liberation. These are to be observed strictly
and entirely by the monks and nuns. Partial
observance is laid down for the householders
with an additional seven vows.