Puja Process involved in entering to leaving
1. Introduction and Background
Before we start, we must emphasize that
there are many different ways of doing Jinpujä.
What you read here is not the only way.
Keeping in mind the Jain doctrine of
Anekäntväd (multiple viewpoints),
we want to make it clear that it is not
our intention to offend anyone.
1.1. Rites & Rutuals in Jainism
The one and only purpose of Jainism is to
attain Moksha (salvation , freedom from
cycle of life and death or eternal happiness).
Rites and rituals are small but important
beginning steps towards the path of Moksha.
The rites and rituals consist of Bhakti
Unlike the general concept of rites and
rituals, Jains do not perform rites and
rituals for worldly happiness, for a certain
miracle or to please some divine power.
In Jainism, the purpose of rites and rituals
is to pay our respect to Tirthankars for
the salvation they have attained, for showing
us the path of purification (Moksha), and
to get the inspiration to become like them.
The aspirant (Sädhak) attains the inner
peace by performing the rites and rituals,
and suppresses his/her passions such as
anger, ego, deceit and greed. The Bhakti
and Worship should imprint an everlasting
impression of Jain principles in the minds
of an aspirant (Sädhak). Rites and
Rituals performed with pure thoughts and
true Jain principles of Ahimsä in mind
should lead the aspirant to believe that
path to Moksha can only be attained by acquiring
the three jewels, namely, Samyak Jnäna
(Right Knowledge), Samyak Darshan (Right
Perception), and Samyak Chäritra (Right
Conduct). Then slowly but surely, the aspirant
sets out on the path of salvation. Tirthankars
were humans like us before they attained
Moksha. Similarly, we human beings can attain
Moksha and become like THEM.
1.2. Why do we need a worshipping
place? Can't we do it in our own home?
The worshipping place provides the necessary
environment for spiritual practice (sädhanä)
as the school provides for education. Once
the aspirant has advanced spiritually, he/she
can continue the spiritual activity at any
place. But for most of Shravaks (householders),
they need to depend upon external sources
such as temple to make initial progress
in the spiritual direction. It is also acceptable
for an aspirant to practice his/her religion
from home as long as he/she achieves the
similar or better results. For most Shrävaks,
combination of both is the best option.
1.3. What is the importance of Pratimäjis
with Prän Pratishthä?
The word Pratishthä is a Sanskrit word
made of two words. The word Pra means Pratyaksha
or “in person” or “live”,
and the word Tishta means to install or
to establish. The combined meaning of the
word Pratishthä means to establish
live image of Veetträg Bhagawän(s)
in the temple for spiritual grace and fellowship.
There is a specific Prän Pratishthä
ceremony which auspiciously installs "living-ness"
in the Pratimäjis. In other words,
Pratimäjis with Prän Pratishthä
are the next best to a Tirthankar in
person. As you know we do not have any Tirthankar
on this planet. Therefore, a Pratimäji
with Prän Pratishthä. is like
a "Tirthankar" residing in our
1.4. Why do we need to do Jinpujä
Jinpujä is a spiritual ritual designed
for Shrävaks. The presence of image
of Tirthankar provides mental peace and
harmony and encourages one to detach his/her
self from the worldly desires. The forum
that Pujäs provide help people discipline
themselves. It is considered to be a simple,
preliminary step towards the attainment
of Moksha. We pray and /or worship to pay
our respects to the Thirthankars because
THEY have attained the liberation, THEY
explained the path of liberation and to
get an inspiration to become like THEM.
1.5. Bhakti & Pujä (Devotion
Bhakti (devotion) and Pujä are interwoven
with the daily life of a Jain and is considered
as part of daily conduct (Vyävhar).
Bhakti and Pujä shows the purest of
soul in the form of daily conduct. This
daily conduct should lead us to the path
of (Nischäy), the realization of absolute
purest form of our own-self, the soul. There
are nine types of Bhakti: (1) Hearing God's
name (Shravan), (2) Devotional singing (Kirtan),
(3) Remembering (Smaran), (4) Worshiping
( Jinpujä ), (5) Bowing down (Vandanä),
(6) Adorning (Archanä), (7) To seek
refuge in complete surrender - Servitude
(Sharan), (8) Friendly sentiment (Maitri)
and (9) Dedication of self (Nivedan). The
Jinpujä process developed by our great
Ächäryas include all nine types
1.6. Types of Pujä
There are two types of Jinpujä: Saguna
& Nirguna. The worship of Jina in the
form or Image is called Saguna Jinpujä.
The worship of Jina as formless (spiritual
idea of Jina) is called Nirguna Jinpujä.
The Saguna worship of the Parmätmä
(idol) is of eight-fold (Ashtaprakäri).
We require the medium of an Idol or image
for worship till we reach the 7th Gunasthän
(Seventh Stage in thespiritual development).
Nirguna worship consists of devotion and
meditation of the Formless one. Once the
aspirant is spiritually advanced to significantly
higher spiritual level (the stage of the
8th Gunasthän and beyond), where Saguna
worship is abandoned. A beginner requires
the medium of Idol. While carrying on the
Dravyapujä (Pujä that includes
physical offerings such as Water, Chandan,
Rice etc is known as Dravyapujä) we
should do the Bhävpujä (mental
/ emotional act of Pujä without any
There are various types of Pujäs: some
of the common Pujäs are (1) Eight-fold
Jinpujä (Ashthaprakäri or Ashthadravya
Pujä), (2) Athär (18) Abhishek
Pujä, (3) Panch Parmeshti Pujä
(4) Snätra Pujä. There are five
types of Pujäs to twenty one types
1.7. How to be engrossed in Jinpujä?
To be engrossed completely in Jinpujä,
the aspirant should have Tadgat Chitt (full
concentrration), Samay Vidhän (observance
of the proper timing), Bhäv Vruddhi
(ever-increasing devotion), Vismay (admiration
- astonishment), Pulak (delight) and Pramod-pradhän
(appreciation of great qualities of the
By performing Jinpujä on a regular
basis with pure feelings (bhäv - mental
/ psychic aspect), it can remove eight types
of karma: knowledge-obscuring karma, perception
/ awareness obscuring karma, belief and
conduct diluting karma, energy obscuring
karma, life-span determining karma, body-determining
karma, status determining karma, and pain-pleasure
producing karma. Thus, liberate our selves
from the bondage of karma forever.
1.8. Purity to be Observed for performing
The purity of the surroundings inevitably
affects one’s purity of thought. Purity
of the Jinpujä ceremony is integral
to the proper completion of Jinpujä.
The aspirant should take a bath
using the necessary amount of water to clean
his/her body. For Digambar Pujä: After
wearing Pujä clothes, take Kesar (saffron
paste) on your right ring finger and place
it on various parts of the body to symbolize
that you are clean and ready to start the
Pujä. In this order, you anoint the
forehead, left and right earlobe, the neck,
and near the belly button. Clean your fingers
after this and do not use the same Kesar
Purity of clothes:
We should have a special set of
clothes worn only for pujä. The clothing
should never have been worn while using
the rest room and never have been worn while
eating or drinking. Traditionally, garments
should be generally white and unstitched.
Men are recommended to wear dhoti and khesh.
In contemporary times, women can wear almost
anything as long as the clothes are new.
For Digambar Pujä: the clothes must
be handwashed clean. One must not have eaten
or gone to the bathroom in those clothes
Purity of mind:
While worshipping avoid stray thoughts.
We should utter relevant verses and meditate
on the virtues of the Bhagwän.
Purity of Ground:
We should sweep the floor of the
temple, clean and arrange the articles of
Purity of Upakaran (items used in
We should buy good and clean items
Purity of money:
Money to be used in religious purposes
must be earned honestly. Ill-gotten wealth
should not be used.
Purity of Ceremony:
We should stop thinking of worldly
affairs as soon as we are on our way to
the temple. We should not carry out any
worldly business in the temple area and
shuld perform the Pujä ceremony systematically.
1.9. Namo Jinänam Jiabhyänam
As soon as we see the flag of the temple
or its shikhar, we should feel happy and
say ‘Namo Jinänam Jiabhyänam’
by bowing our head with folded hands. We
do the same thing as soon as we see the
Jin Murti in the temple.
1.10. How to stand in front of the
While worshipping or doing darshan of the
Parmätmä, men should stand on
the right side and women should stand on
the left side of the Parmätmä.
This is done to observe the courtesy, and
to allow others to see (darshan) the Parmätmä.
1.11. Whom to watch when we are
We should watch the Parmätmä without
looking a) upwards, downwards or sideways;
b) right or left or c) behind all the time
when we are in the temple.
2. Basic Steps to be followed in
2.1. Nisihi & Pranäm
We should utter words 'Nisihi' (to give
up) thrice first time while entering the
main door of the temple. It means that I
will restrain myself from engaging in worldly
activities, physically, verbally and mentally.
Say ‘Namo Jinänam Jiabhyänam’
with folded hands while bowing the head
as soon as we see Jin Murti in the temple.
Then proceed to do the Jin Darshan of the
There are three ways to do the Pranäm
to Paramätmä: a) Bowing head with
our both hands folded together. b) Bowing
down by bending the upper part of our body
half way and do Pranäm with folded
hands. c) Bowing down by bringing the five
limbs of the body together (two arms, two
knees and the head) on the floor.
The second time 'Nisihi' is uttered before
entering the inner temple (Gabhärä).
This signifies that I am abandoning the
activities relating to the temple matters.
The third time 'Nisihi' is uttered after
completion of Jin Pujä. This signifies
that I will restrain myself from physical
acts of worship (Dravya Pujä) before
performing 'Chaitya Vandan' (Bhäv Pujä).
After the Jin Darshan of Mul-Näyak,
we should proceed to perform three Pradakshinä
(circumambulation) the Parmätmä
(in Bhomati, also called Gomati), starting
from the right of HIM. It is symbolic for
acquiring virtues of right perception, right
knowledge and right conduct.
While doing first Pradakshinä, we should
recite the following:
- Käl anädi anantthi, bhav-bhramanno
- Te bhramanä niväravä,
Pradakshanä daoo tran vär,
- Bhamati mä bhamatä thakä,
bhav-bhävath door paläy,
- Jnän-darshan-chäritra roop,
Pradakshanä tran devai.
While doing second Pradakshinä, we
should recite the following:
While doing third Pradakshinä, we should
recite the following:
- Janm-maranädi savi bhay tale,
sijhe jo darshan käj,
- Ratna-trayi präpti bhani, darshan
karo jin räj,
- Jnän vadu samsaär mä,
jnän-param such hetu,
- Jnän vinä jagjivadä,
na lahe tatva sanket.
- Chay te sanchay karmno, rikta kare
- Chäritra näm niryukte kahyu,
vando te gunegeh,
- Jnän darshan chäritra e, ratnatrayi
- Tran Pradakshanä te kärane,
If you do not remember the above then,
we should recite hymns of an auspicious
prayer like some hymns from the Ratnäkar
Pachchisi or from Bhaktämar Stotra
with full devotion while doing Pradakhanä.
While performing Pradakshinä, we should
bow our head with folded hands whenever
we see the Parmätmä.
2.3. Chandan Preparation
After three Pradakshinä, we go the
corner which is dedicated for Chandan preparation.
Here we cover our mouth with Pujä-Rumäl
and prepare the chandan for pujä. There
is no need to use saffron. After, preparing
the Chandan for pujä, we clean the
2.4. Tilak (Ägnächakra)
Now, while seating in Padmäsän,
we put a Tilak (vertical flame like) on
the forehead. This means that we are obeying
the commands of Tirthankar (His teachings)
for liberation of our soul. Round Tilak
is not recommended. After putting Tilak,
the aspirant with folded hands should say
"Namo Jinänam" as if the
Parmätmä is in the front of him
2.5. Bell ringing
As we get closer to the Ghabhärä,
we ring the bell three times to symbolize
that I will stay away from the activities
of the material world and will become engrossed
in Jin Pujä by my body, speech and
mind. The bell is rang second time when
‘Abhishek Pujä’ is about
Third time we ring the bell after the completion
of Jin Pujä and befor we start the
Bhäv Pujä (Chatya-vandan). This
time we ring the bell twenty seven times
to symbolize twenty seven special characteristics
of a Jain monk. Because, the ownership of
Bhäv pujä (Chaitya-vandan) belongs
to Jain monks. Now, we are going to become
a Jain monk while performing Chaitya-vandan.
Therefore, to respect and praise the special
twenty seven characteristics of Jain monk,
we ring the bell twenty seven times.
Forth time we ring the bell while leaving
the temple. This time we ring the bell seven
times symbolizing the seven types of fear
that we want to get rid of in order to be
freed from the miseries of the material
2.6. Jin Pujä in Ghabhärä
After ringing the bell three times, say
‘Nisihi’ three times before
entering the Gabhärä. Mouth and
nose should be covered by Pujä-rumäl
before entering the Gabhär. After entering
the Gabhärä do Pranäm to
Paramätmä by bending the upper
body and with folded hands, and a recite
an auspicious Stuti.
When we enter the Gabhärä, we
may notice two figures under the seat of
Mul-Näyak, one showing tiger’s
face and other one showing lion’s
face. Tiger symbolizes “Räg”
(attachment) and lion symbolizes “Dwesh”
(aversion). This signifies that there are
two elements, attachment and aversion, which
are root cause of our miseries in the material
world. Our Paramätmä have eradicated
them totally, attained the everlasting happiness,
Moksha. And we want to attain the same.
There are three types of Pujä: a) Ang
Puiä - We worship the Parmätmä
by touching it. It consists of Jal-Pujä,
Chandan-Pujä and Pushpa-pujä.
b) Agra Pujä - We worship the Parmätmä
by standing in front of Him by waving incense,
lamp (Dipak) and swaying the Chämar.
Then we worship the Parmätmä by
making a rice-swastik and placing sweets
and fruits on it before the Parmätmä.
c) Bhäv Pujä - Chaitya Vandan,
Stavan and Stuti constitute the Bhäv
The follwing is the brief explanation of
Ashthprakäi Pujä per Shwetämbar
tradition. Ashthprakäi Pujä per
Digambar tradition is briefly explained
in the Section 3.0 This particular Jinpujä
is usually performed in the morning. Eight
different rituals are performed during the
Pujä: jal (water), Chandan (sandalwood
paste), Pushpa (flowers), dhoop (incense),
dipak (light), akshat (rice), naivedya (sweets),
and fal (fruits).
1. Jala Pujä: (Water):
Before performing this, everything (like
flowers), from the Parmätmä should
be removed. Then insects (if any) on the
Parmätmä be removed gently by
using a peacock feather-brush. After this,
we should sprinkle water (abhishek) on the
Parmätmä. Then remove stale sandal
paste by wet cloth (Potu), apply the Välakunchi
(brush of hair-like Chandan sticks) gently
on the places where dry paste is stuck.
Water symbolizes life's ocean of birth,
death, and misery. This Jinpujä reminds
that one should live his life with honesty,
truthfulness, love, and compassion towards
all living beings. This way one will be
able to cross life's ocean and attain liberation
2. Chandan Pujä: (Sandal-wood):
Wipe the Parmätmä by three pieces
of cloth to remove all water, and make the
Parmätmä completely dry. This
Pujä involves pujä of nine limbs:
(1) two toes of the feet (symbolizes the
preservation of the energy – Viryarakshä),
(2) two knees (symbolizes self-efforts &
self-initiatives - Swädhinatä),
(3) two wrists (symbolizes donation, good
deeds), (4) the shoulders (symbolizes absence
of ego and mighty shoulders that swam thru
the ocean of misery), (5) the head (symbolizes
moksha), (6) the forehead (symbolizes third
eye, inner eye to the self), (7) the throat
(symbolizes the most auspicious speech),
(8) the chest (symbolizes purity of heart
by eradication of attachment and aversion)
and (9) the naval (symbolizes three jewels
– perfect perception, perfect knowledge
and perfect conduct). There is a particular
- spiritual aspiration is associated with
pujä of each limb. Chandan symbolizes
knowledge (jnana). By doing this Jinpujä
, one should thrive for right knowledge.
4. Dhup Pujä: (Incense):
Dhup symbolizes monkhood life. While
burning itself, incense provides fragrance
to others. Similarly, true monks and nuns
spend their entire life selflessly to benefit
all living beings. This Jinpujä reminds
that one should thrive for an ascetic life.
5. Dipak Pujä: (Candle):
The flame of Dipak represents a pure consciousness,
i.e. a soul without bondage of any karmas
or a liberated soul. By doing this Jinpujä
one should thrive to follow five great vows;
non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing,
chastity, and non-possession. Ultimately
these vows will lead to liberation.
6. Akshat Pujä: (Rice):
Rice is a kind of grain which is non-fertile.
One cannot grow rice plants by seeding rice.
Symbolically, it represents the last birth.
By doing this Jinpujä one should thrive
to put all efforts in life in such a way
that this life becomes the last life, and
there will be no more birth after this life.
Literally, Akshat means unbroken, and it
stands for unbroken happiness. The bright
white color of rice represents the purity
of our soul.
In Akshat Pujä, the aspirant makes
a swastik using rice grains on a plate or
a wooden plank (Pätalä). The swastik
sign symbolizes the samsärik cycle
that is consisted of four destinies: 1.
heavenly beings, 2. humans, 3. hell beings
and 4. rest of the living forms (animals,
plants, etc.). A given soul can be born
unaccountable number of times in each type.
Then he/she places three dots above the
swastik sign. Three dots symbolize the three
jewels - perfect perception, perfect knowledge
and perfect conduct. These three provide
the means for escaping the miserable samsarik
cycle. Finally, he/she makes a half circle
on the top of three dots and puts a dot
in that half circle. This half circle figure
with a dot symbolizes the place, sidhdhha-lok
(upper portion of the universe) where the
liberated souls are. The aspirant desires
to be liberated from the samsarik cycle
of four destinies by the means of right
perception, right knowledge and right conduct
and attain Moksha. The aspirant puts Sweet
on the swastik symbolizing he/she wants
to attain a foodless state (Anähäri
- Siddha). In addition, the aspirant puts
fruit on the siddhashilä symbolizing
the fruit of the Jinpujä is the fifth
state of liberation that is liberation.
7. Naivedya Pujä:
(Sweets): Naivedya symbolizes tasty food.
The aspirant puts the Naivedya on the siddha-shilä
(made out of rice in the Akshat Pujä).
By doing this Jinpujä , one should
thrive to reduce or eliminate attachment
to tasty food. Healthy food is essential
for survival, however one should not live
for tasty food. Ultimate aim in one's life
is to attain Moksha where no food is essential
8. Fal Pujä: (Fruit):
Fruit is a symbol of Moksha or liberation.
. The aspirant puts the fruit on the Swastik
(made out of rice in the Akshat Pujä).
If we live our life without any attachment
to worldly affairs, continue to perform
our duty without any expectation and reward,
be a witness to all the incidents that occur
surrounding us, truly follow monkhood life,
and have a love and compassion to all living
beings, we will attain the fruit of liberation.
This is the last Jinpujä symbolizing
the ultimate achievement of our life.
After completion of Ang Pujä, you come
out of the Gabhärä and perform
Agra Pujä. After Agra Pujä, one
may perform Darpan Pujä and then perform
Chowri dance as explained in sub-sections
2.7 and 2.8.
2.9. Bhäv Pujä
There are three types of Bhäv Pujäs.
In general, Chaitya Vandan is performed
after the Ashtaprakäri Pujä.
2.10. Avasthä, Bhumi, Älamban,
Mudrä and Pranidhan Triks
There are a total of ten triks (triks means
a group of three): (1) Nisihi trik,(2) Pradakshinä
trik, (3) Pranäm trik, (4) Pujä
trik, (5) Avasthä trik, (6) Dishä
trik (7) Bhumi trik (8) Älamban trik
(9) Mudrä trik (10) Pranidhan trik.
Earlier, we have already mentioned about
(1) Nisihi trik,(2) Pradakshinä trik,
(3) Pranäm trik, (4) Pujä trik
and (6) Dishä trik
(5) Ävasthä Trik:
a) Birth Stage - While doing Abbishek, (the
ceremony of bathing), we should think that
Indra and heavenly beings are performing
the Abhishek on the Mount Meru upon the
head of the newly born baby who is going
to be Tirthankar
b) Kingship Stage - After worshipping the
Parmätmä with sandal paste, flowers
and ornaments, we should contemplate the
kinghood of Tirthankar imagining Him seated
on a throne.
c) Shraman (Ascetic) Stage - We look at
the hairless head of Tirthankar and contemplate
His Ascetic stage of life, wishing for ourself
the same state in this life.
(7) Bhumi Pujan Trik: Before doing Chaitya
Vandan, we should sweep the ground with
the help of our scarf or handkerchief in
order to gently move insects and minute
living beings from the area.
(8) Älamban Trik:
a) Varna-älamban - We should recite
the sutras, stavanas and stuti correctly
without skipping any letter or a word.
b) Arthav-älamban - We should think
of the meaning of the words uttered by us.
c) Pratimav-älamaban - We should say
prayers facing the Parmätmä.
(9) Mudrä Trik
a) Yoga Mudrä - Fold the ten fingers
into the form of a lotus, keep the elbow
on the belly and recite the Chaitya Vandan
up to Namuthunam. b) Jin Mudrä - Do
Kausagga while standing up arid keeping
two arms hanging down after reciting from
Arihant-cheiyaname up to Anattha Sutra.
(c) Mukata Sukti Mudrä - Fold your
two palms hollow like a pearl-shell and
then touch your forehead and recite Jävanti
Cheial, Jävant-Kevisähu and Jay
(10) Pranidhan Trik - Chaitya Vandan is
performed with full physical, verbal and
2.11. How to come out of the temple
After ringing the bell, you must leave the
temple without turning your back towards
the Parmätmä (Idol). You must
retreat walking backwards and say “Ävissahi.
After coming out of the temple, sit for
a few minutes outside the temple visualizing
the Parmätmä with eyes softly
closed, steady body and full mental concentration.
3. Brief Description Ashtaprakäri
(Eight Fold) Jinpujä per Digambar tradition
Abhishekh: Abhishekh is
performed by the Pujäri (male); the
rest of the members participate in reading
the Jinpujä. Altar area is cleaned.
Abhishek involves cleaning of the altar
by sprinkling saffron water in the eight
directions and cleaning of the Parmätmä,
then wiping the Parmätmä dry by
using dry cloth. Several kalashes (pots)
of pure water is used in bathing the Parmätmä
as the bell is rang and the Abhishekh path
is read or Namokär Mahä Mantra
is recited. The rest of the participants
are reading or chanting the Abhishekh Path.
Usually, there should be a continuous stream
of water until the Abhishekh Path is complete.
Then the Parmätmä is first wiped
by wet cloth and then with a dry cloth.
three full cloves and hold one clove at
a time between the two ring fingers. While
keeping the clove head pointing forward
and while chanting the sthäpanä,
place the cloves in an elevated place. The
first clove represents that May Dev-Shostra-Guru
come into my thoughts, second clove represents
that May Dev-Shostra-Guru stay in my thoughts,
and third clove represents that May Dev-Shostra-Guru
be near me.
Invocation: The rays
of the sun of omniscience illuminate whose
inner self, That voice of Jinendra expounds
beautifully the fundamentals of our being,
The monks who proceed on the path of right
faith, knowledge, and conduct, I bow to
thee, oh God, scriptures and monks of the
Jain order, a hundred times. I implore of
the trio to settle in my mind, while I am
offering this homage.
4. Ärati, Mangal Divo and Shänti
There are many meanings of Ärati. One
meaning is to experience the spiritual joy
from all directions (Ärati = Ä
+ Rati; Ä means from all sides and
Rati means Joy – spiritual joy). When
a religious activity is concluded with success,
we do Ärati to express our spiritual
joy. Ärati also means to seek the end
of “Ärt” (misery). This
material world (Samsär) is full of
misery, and the aspirant is performing Ärati
to free himself / herself from the cycle
of the misery of the material world, cycle
of birth and death. Third meaning is that
to fill our inner selves with spiritual
joy, and to end the mental unhappiness.
To free from the miserable cycle of the
material world (Samsär), one needs
to have bright light of five types of knowledge.
That’s why we light five Dipaks (which
has candle like flame). In front of these
five lights, there is a symbol of a snake
which indicates that delusion (Moha) is
like snake and as snakes are afraid of fire,
the delusion is conquered by the true knowledge.
The symbol of These five Dipaks are also
symbol of five great vows (Panch Mahä
Vrat) through its practice, one attains
the salvation. Five Dipaks are also symbolic
of practicing five Samitis (Restraints),
It is also representative of restraining
negative activities of five senses and five
characteristics of Samyak Darshan (Right
Another way to understand the purpose of
performing Ärati is that, to free our
selves from the miserable cycle of material
world, we need to detach our selves from
all worldly attachments as five supreme
beings (Panch Parmeshthi) have done it.
To pay our spiritual tribute to these five
Panch Parmeshthi, we light up five Dipaks,
and we mentally contemplate that “I
want to also give up all worldly attachments,
and want to initiate myself (take Dikshä)
to become a Sädhu (or Sädhvi)
to free my self from four Sämsarik
destinies and to attain the fifth destiny,
4.2. Mangal Divo
Mangal means to eradicate bad karma (päp),
to free our selves from Samsär (material
world), to remove the darkness of ignorance,
to have an auspicious opportunity to practice
Right Religion and to practice the path
that is beneficial to the Self (soul). Only
path of Moksha is beneficial to our Self
that is attained by eradicating all karma.
By removing the darkness of karma, one enlightens
himself / herself with the Absolute Knowledge
(Keval Jnäna). One Dipak is used in
Mangal Divo to symbolize the one and only
Perfect Knowledge, Keval Jnäna through
which the darkness of the ignorance is permanently
removed, the miserable cycle of birth and
death is permanently ended, the association
with the foreign dust of karma is completely
terminated, and the true qualities of the
souls are forever realized. In other words,
one Dipak in Mangal Divo symbolizes the
one and only path of Moksha as expounded
by Tirthankars. We should mentally contemplate
while performing Mangal Divo that “I
want to enlighten my inner Dipak (self)
just like this Mangal Divo by attaining
the perfect knowledge, Keval Jnäna
by practicing the path of Moksha as expounded
4.3. Shänti Kalash
This is performed for inner and external
peace for everyone and everywhere in the
universe. In the beginning, Namokär
Mahä Mantra and Uvasaggaraham are recited,
and then it is followed by Bruh-Shänti
while maintaining a continuous flow of the
Panchämrut from Kalash in to a Pot.
In this process, the peace in the universe
is prayed for by wishing good physical,
verbal, mental and spiritual health to all
living beings and absence of misery everywhere.
This is done in the manner it was done by
the heavenly beings and their king (Indra)
while performing Janmäbhishek of Tirthankar
on the Mount Meru. Aspirant pays his / her
respect to all twenty four Tirthankars and
prays for suppression of passions (Kashäy)
everywhere. Inner and external peace is
wished to the four folded community (Sangh)
and to all living beings, guidance from
Jain monks and nuns is sought, Mantras are
recited, help from heavenly beings is sought,
environment, that is free of diseases, wars,
droughts, disturbances and unhappiness,
is sought. The spiritual progress, contentment
and well being for everyone is wished. It
is prayed that every living being becomes
free of all kind of fears, fear of water,
fire, poison, animals, disease, war, enemy,
robber, etc. It wished that each living
being helps each other, everyone eliminates
his/her own faults, and everlasting happiness
for everyone is wished.